Oct.2023 30
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TV antenna
A TV antenna is an antenna specifically designed for use with a television receiver (TV) to receive over-the-air television signals from a television station
Television reception depends on antennas and transmitters. Terrestrial television is broadcast in various countries at frequencies between approximately 47 and 250MHz in the very high frequency (VHF) band and between approximately 470 and 960MHz in the very high frequency (UHF) band. There are two different types of TV antennas: "indoor" antennas that are mounted on or next to the TV, and "outdoor" antennas that are mounted on the roof mast of the owner's home. It can also be installed in attics and attics. Dry conditions and high altitude facilitate reception and antenna life. Outdoor antennas are expensive and difficult to install, but are necessary to get good reception in the surrounding area away from the TV station. The most common types of indoor antennas are dipole (" rabbit ear ") antennas and ring antennas, log-period Yagi antennas for outdoor antennas, and multi-bay reflector array antennas for UHF channels.

The antenna's job is to intercept radio waves from the desired TV station, convert them into tiny RF alternating current, and apply it to the TV tuner to extract the TV signal. The antenna is connected to the TV using a special cable (called a transmission line) specifically designed to carry radio current. Early antennas used flat cables called 300 ohm twin-leads. The current standard is an anti-interference 75 ohm coaxial cable that plugs into either the F connector on the back of the TV or the Elling Lee connector (depending on the region). A small transformer called a Barron is used in the line to convert the signal from an antenna that uses dual leads into a modern coaxial cable input. In most countries, television broadcasts are allowed in the very High frequency (VHF) band between 47 and 68 MHz (called VHF Low Band or Band I in Europe). 174 to 216 MHz (known in Europe as the VHF High Band or Band III), and the 470 to 698 MHz ultra-high frequency (UHF) band, known in Europe as bands IV and V. The boundaries of each band vary slightly from country to country. Radio waves in these bands travel within the line of sight. They are obscured by hills and the horizon, and TV coverage is limited to 40 to 60 miles (65 to 95 kilometers), depending on the terrain.

We are mainly talking about indoor TV antennas:
The indoor antenna can be mounted on the TV itself, or you can stand on a nearby table and connect it to the TV with a short feeder. Due to space constraints, indoor antennas cannot be as large and complex as outdoor antennas, cannot be installed at high altitudes, and building walls will block part of the radio waves. For these reasons, indoor antennas often do not provide as good a reception as outdoor antennas. In urban and suburban areas, often within the strong radiation "footprint" of local television stations, they are usually perfectly adequate, but in rural fringe reception areas, only outdoor antennas provide adequate reception. . Some of the simplest indoor antennas are described below, but a variety of designs and types exist. Antennas usually have turntables that allow different Settings to change the antenna's receiving mode. After opening the Settings, look at the screen and rotate until you get the best image.
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